Volume 43 Number 7, November/December 2006
Pages 825 — 830
Differences in cause of death of Washington State veterans who did and did not use Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare services
Charles Maynard, PhD;* Edward J. Boyko, MD, MPHDepartment of Veterans Affairs Epidemiologic Research and Information Center, Seattle, WA
Abstract — Relatively little is known about the cause of death in the veteran population, although more is known about the cause of death in Vietnam veterans or veterans receiving mental health services. This article compares characteristics and causes of death in Washington State veterans who did and did not use Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare services in the 5 years prior to death. This study included 62,080 veterans who died between 1998 and 2002, of whom 21% were users of VA healthcare services. The veterans who used VA healthcare services were younger, more often men, less educated, more often divorced, and more often smokers than the veterans who did not use VA healthcare services. Both female and male veterans who used VA healthcare services were more likely to die from drug- and/or alcohol-related causes. These findings suggest that the VA patient population is socially disadvantaged and more severely affected by substance-use disorders compared with veterans who do not use VA healthcare services.Key words: death records, Department of Veterans Affairs, education, healthcare, mortality, rehabilitation, smoking, substance-use disorders, veterans, Washington State.
Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval, ICD = International Classification of Diseases, OR = odds ratio, VA = Department of Veterans Affairs, VAMC = VA medical center.*Address all correspondence to Charles Maynard, PhD; Department of Veterans Affairs Epidemiologic Research and Information Center (152), 1100 Olive Way, Suite 1400, Seattle, WA 98101; 206-277-6496; fax: 206-764-2935. Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgDOI: 10.1682/JRRD.2006.01.0004INTRODUCTION
Relatively little is known about the cause of death in the general veteran population, although more is known about the cause of death in Vietnam and Persian Gulf war veterans [1-3]. Veterans who received specialty mental health services died younger and were more likely to die from infectious diseases, accidents, or suicide than their counterparts who received general medical care only . These findings are consistent with results from the civilian population .
Strong evidence exists that veterans who use Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare services are sicker than veterans who do not . Whether age and cause of death differ among veterans who do and do not use VA healthcare services is unknown. We hope that this article will provide new information about cause of death in a large veteran population. Our first objective was to identify veterans who died in Washington State between 1998 and 2002 and determine whether they used VA healthcare services. Our second objective was to compare characteristics and causes of death according to VA healthcare use in the 5 years prior to death. We were particularly interested in whether the proportion of alcohol- and/or drug-induced deaths differed between users and nonusers of VA healthcare services.METHODSPopulation
We identified deceased veterans through Washington State death certificates, which include a question as to whether the decedent was ever in the Armed Forces of the United States. In this article, we include 62,080 Washington State veterans who died between 1998 and 2002. These veterans were identified from electronic death certificates provided by the Washington State Department of Health. An additional 1,462 veterans with missing or invalid Social Security numbers were not included because we needed the Social Security number to link to VA healthcare use files to identify users of VA healthcare services.Study Variables
In addition to date of death and veteran status, we obtained from the death certificate each veteran's age, sex, race, education, marital status, and smoker status during the 15 years before death. The distances between each veteran's residence and the closest VA medical center (VAMC) and outpatient clinic were obtained from VA data sources. The underlying cause of death was also collected and reported using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 codes for veteran deaths in 1998 and ICD-10 codes for deaths in 1999 to 2002. The ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes that we used to define the leading causes of death and alcohol- and/or drug-induced causes are shown in Appendix 1 and Appendix 2, respectively.
We obtained information concerning use of VA healthcare services 5 years prior to death by linking the Social Security number recorded on the death certificate with a similar number contained in the VA Austin Automation Center files. A scrambled identifier, which was obtained from the linkage, was then used to extract healthcare use information from the relevant Austin Automation Center files. Types of healthcare use included (1) outpatient, (2) acute hospital, (3) extended or nursing home, (4) observation, and (5) authorized non-VA acute hospital.Statistical Methods
Analyses were performed separately for female and male veterans. To compare baseline characteristics of users and nonusers of VA healthcare services, we used the chi-square statistic for categorical variables and the two sample t-test for continuous variables. To examine the association between alcohol- and/or drug-induced deaths and use of VA healthcare services, we used the chi-square statistic. We also used logistic regression to determine the association between these two factors after adjusting for demographic and smoking variables.RESULTS
Overall, 2,618 female veterans (4% of sample) and 59,462 male veterans were studied; 12 percent of the females and 21 percent of the males used VA healthcare services in the 5 years prior to death. Of the 309 female veterans who used VA healthcare services, 99 percent had used outpatient services, 55 percent had been hospitalized in VAMCs, and 26 percent had extended care. Only two female veterans had been in observation beds and 9 percent had been hospitalized in non-VA facilities. A total of 12,730 male veterans used VA healthcare services and 99 percent received outpatient care. Approximately 52 percent of these males had been hospitalized in VAMCs, 21 percent had extended care, 2 percent had occupied observation beds, and 6 percent had been hospitalized in non-VA facilities.
Female veterans who used VA healthcare services were 4 years younger, more often divorced, and more often smokers than their counterparts who did not use VA healthcare services (Table 1). These differences were also true for the male veterans, as seen in Table 2. In addition, male veterans who used VA healthcare services were more often nonwhite, less educated, and living closer to VA healthcare facilities than male veterans who did not use VA healthcare services.
Table 1.Characteristics of deceased female veterans in Washington State who did (n = 309) and did not use (n = 2,309) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare services. Characteristic Used VA Healthcare p-Value Yes (%) No (%) Age (yr) <0.001 18-29 0 <1 30-39 3 2 40-49 10 4 50-59 11 6 60-69 13 10 70-79 32 33 80-89 25 33 Š90 6 11 Mean ± Standard Deviation 71 ± 15 75 ± 14 <0.001 Race/Ethnicity 0.41 White 94 95 African American 4 2 Native American 1 1 Asian 1 1 Hispanic <1 <1 Education 0.31 £8th Grade 2 4 Some High School 3 4 High School Graduate 36 37 Some College 33 29 College Graduate 16 16 Postgraduate Work 9 10 Marital Status <0.001 Single 13 10 Married 24 29 Divorced 31 17 Widowed 32 45 Unknown <1 0 Closest VA Outpatient Clinic (mi) 0.16 £10 62 59 10-20 20 18 >20 18 22 Closest VA Medical Center (mi) 0.06 £20 70 62 20-50 14 18 50-100 14 18 >100 2 2 Smoked in Past 15 Yr 42 34 0.001 Note: Columns may not sum to 100% because of rounding.
Table 2.Characteristics of deceased male veterans in Washington State who did (n = 12,730) and did not use (n = 46,732) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare services. Characteristic Used VA Healthcare p-Value Yes (%) No (%) Age (yr) <0.001 18-29 <1 <1 30-39 1 1 40-49 5 3 50-59 13 8 60-69 19 18 70-79 36 37 80-89 23 29 Š90 2 4 Mean ± Standard Deviation 71 ± 12 73 ± 11 <0.001 Race/Ethnicity <0.001 White 91 96 African American 5 2 Native American 1 1 Asian 1 1 Hispanic 1 <1 Education <0.001 £8th Grade 12 9 Some High School 11 10 High School Graduate 41 40 Some College 21 20 College Graduate 9 12 Postgraduate Work 6 9 Marital Status <0.001 Single 8 5 Married 51 63 Divorced 25 13 Widowed 16 19 Unknown <1 <1 Closest VA Outpatient Clinic (mi) <0.001 £10 60 55 10-20 17 19 >20 23 26 Closest VA Medical Center (mi) <0.001 £20 61 58 20-50 18 20 50-100 18 20 >100 3 2 Smoked in Past 15 Yr 47 37 0.001 Note: Columns may not sum to 100% because of rounding.
For the relatively few female veterans who used VA healthcare services, malignant neoplasms were more often the underlying cause of death and cerebrovascular diseases were less often the cause of death (Table 3). Strikingly, alcohol- and/or drug-induced deaths were three times more common in female users of VA healthcare services (odds ratio [OR] = 3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.71-5.60). One must recognize, however, that only 56 females had alcohol- and/or drug-induced deaths. Of these, 29 percent used VA healthcare services in comparison with only 11 percent of the females who did not die of alcohol- and/or drug-related causes. The females with alcohol- and/or drug-induced deaths were 24 years younger (51 vs 75 years), more often single or divorced (65% vs 28%), and more often smokers (66% vs 34%) than their counterparts who died from other causes.
Table 3.Leading causes of death among female veterans in Washington State who did (n = 309) and did not use (n = 2,309) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare services. Cause of Death Used VA Healthcare Yes (%) No (%) Diseases of Heart 20.4 21.9 Malignant Neoplasms 31.7 26.3 Cerebrovascular Diseases 6.8 9.4 Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases 4.2 7.9 Accidents (unintentional injuries) 3.6 3.3 Diabetes Mellitus 2.3 2.0 Influenza and Pneumonia 0.6 2.4 Nephritis, Nephritic Syndrome, and Nephrosis 0.0 0.7 Intentional Self-Harm (suicide) 1.6 0.9 Septicemia 0.3 0.8 Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis 0.6 0.7 Assault (homicide) 0.0 0.4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 0.0 0.0 Other 27.9 23.3 Alcohol- and/or Drug-Induced 5.2 1.7
For male veterans, the leading cause of death was similar for users and nonusers of VA healthcare services (Table 4). A total of 1,448 males had alcohol- and/or drug-induced deaths, the likelihood of which was higher in those who used VA healthcare services (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.95-2.42). Of the males with alcohol- and/or drug-induced deaths, 37 percent used VA healthcare services, as opposed to only 21 percent who did not have alcohol- and/or drug-induced deaths. These males with alcohol- and/or drug-induced deaths were younger (58 vs 73 years), more often single or divorced (54% vs 20%), and more often smokers (69% vs 39%) than the males who died from other causes.
Table 4.Leading causes of death among male veterans in Washington State who did (n = 12,730) and did not use (n = 46,732) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare services. Cause of Death Used VA Healthcare Yes (%) No (%) Diseases of Heart 25.7 27.3 Malignant Neoplasms 27.3 29.8 Cerebrovascular Diseases 5.6 6.6 Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases 7.9 6.4 Accidents (unintentional injuries) 3.5 3.1 Diabetes Mellitus 3.3 2.3 Influenza and Pneumonia 2.3 2.0 Nephritis, Nephritic Syndrome, and Nephrosis 0.8 0.6 Intentional Self-Harm (suicide) 1.8 1.9 Septicemia 0.7 0.6 Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis 2.3 1.2 Assault (homicide) 0.2 0.2 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 0.3 0.2 Other 18.3 17.8 Alcohol- and/or Drug-Induced 4.2 2.0
Adjusting for differences between users and nonusers of VA healthcare services did not appreciably change the observed association between cause of death and use of VA healthcare services for either females or males. For the 2,585 females with complete information, we adjusted for age, marital status, and smoking and found that the odds of an alcohol- and/or drug-induced death were more than two times higher in female veterans who used VA healthcare services (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.11-4.07). For the 58,431 males with complete information, we adjusted for age, marital status, smoking, education, and race/ethnicity and found that the odds of an alcohol- and/or drug-induced death were also higher among the users of VA healthcare services (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.36-1.72).DISCUSSION
In this study of deceased Washington State veterans, only about 20 percent used VA healthcare services during the 5 years prior to death. This finding is very similar to results from the 2001 National Survey of Veterans in which 23 percent of veterans used VA healthcare services (http://www1.va.gov/vetdata/). The 62,080 veterans that we studied represented 28 percent of the 221,976 persons who were over 18 and listed in Washington State death records for 1998 through 2002. Female veterans, who were 4 percent of all deceased veterans in this study, were less likely to use VA healthcare services and represented only 2 percent of VA healthcare recipients. This finding was expected given that not all VAMCs offer the full range of women's health services . Users of VA healthcare services were younger, more often male, less educated, more often divorced, and more often smokers during the 15 years before death. The leading causes of death in the overall study population were typical for individuals who died in their seventies.
The major finding of this study was that both female and male users of VA healthcare services were more likely to die from alcohol- and/or drug-related causes than veterans who did not use VA healthcare. Most VAMCs offer a full range of substance-use disorder treatment services, which indicates that veterans may be more likely to use these services than publicly funded addiction treatment services that may be unavailable because of limited capacity. Also, many veterans may not have had adequate health insurance or other resources to obtain private addiction treatment. Hence, the VA may be a last resort for veterans needing addiction treatment or other medical care for addiction-related conditions. This finding, along with the younger age at death of veteran VA healthcare users, supports the contention that the VA has a socially disadvantaged and less healthy population .
Considerable attention has been given to the accuracy of VA death records as compared with state (e.g., Washington State, California) death records or the National Death Index [8-10]. However, very little is known about causes of death in veterans, except for select groups such as Vietnam veterans or veterans with mental illness [1-4]. This article is among the first to describe causes of death in a large unselected group of veterans. The finding of increased mortality related to alcohol and/or drug use likely applies to veterans outside Washington State.
Limitations related to the completeness and accuracy of the underlying cause of death recorded on the death certificate have long been recognized . However, agreement between veteran status recorded on the death certificate and a questionnaire from the 1986 National Mortality Followback Survey was 97 percent . The value of the smoking variable on the death certificate in Washington State has been evaluated as well . Importantly, the data we presented were based on proportional mortality; thus, greater impact on death of a particular cause may not necessarily reflect more frequent or severe occurrence of this cause in a population but rather the less frequent occurrence of other causes. Nevertheless, results from this study suggest that cause of death may provide important information about users of VA healthcare services.
Unfortunately, very few states make their death records publicly available at a reasonable cost for researchers. The National Death Index is also available for researchers but may be cost-prohibitive for studies of large numbers of cases, such as the millions of veterans who have died in the past 10 years. Given that underlying cause of death is of interest not only to researchers but also to policy makers and planners, further efforts to cost-effectively obtain this information from the National Death Index should be explored.CONCLUSIONS
In summary, mortality related to substance-use disorder occurred more frequently among Washington State veterans who used VA healthcare resources. The reasons for these findings deserve further investigation and may reflect in part more generous VA coverage for addiction treatment in comparison with non-VA health plans.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This material was based on work supported by the VA Epidemiologic Research and Information Center (grant EPC-010).
The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the VA.
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