Volume 44 Number 7, 2007
Pages 895 — 920
Abstrct - Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms and mild traumatic brain injury
Jan E. Kennedy, PhD;1* Michael S. Jaffee, MD;1 Gregory A. Leskin, PhD;2 James W. Stokes, MD;1 Felix O. Leal, MA;1 Pamela J. Fitzpatrick, PhD11Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Department of Neurology, Wilford Hall Air Force Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, TX; 2National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Education and Clinical Laboratory, Department of Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA; 3Psychiatry Service, Department of Behavioral
Medicine, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX
Abstract — In this article, we review the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD-like symptoms that can occur along with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and concussion, with specific reference to concussive injuries in the military. We address four major areas: (1) clinical aspects of TBI and PTSD, including diagnostic criteria, incidence, predictive factors, and course; (2) biological interface between PTSD and TBI; (3) comorbidity between PTSD and other mental disorders that can occur after mild TBI; and (4) current treatments for PTSD, with specific considerations related to treatment for patients with mild TBI or concussive injuries.
Key words: biological factors, blast concussion, clinical course, comorbidity, concussion, incidence, mild traumatic brain injury, rehabilitation, posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, treatment.