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Volume 42 Number 6, November/December 2005
Pages 723 — 736

Abstract - Response to upper-limb robotics and functional neuromuscular stimulation following stroke

Janis J. Daly, PhD, MS;1-2* Neville Hogan, PhD;3 Elizabeth M. Perepezko, PhD;1 Hermano I. Krebs, PhD;3 Jean M. Rogers, PhD;1 Kanu S. Goyal, PhD;1 Mark E. Dohring, PhD;1 Eric Fredrickson, MD;1 Joan Nethery, PhD;1 Robert L. Ruff, MD, PhD1-2

1Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Medical Research Service, Cleveland, OH; 2Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH; 3Mechanical Engineering and Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
Abstract-Twelve moderately to severely involved chronic stroke survivors (>12 mo) were randomized to one of two treatments: robotics and motor learning (ROB-ML) or functional neuromuscular stimulation and motor learning (FNS-ML). Treatment was 5 h/d, 5 d/wk for 12 wk. ROB-ML group had 1.5 h per session devoted to robotics shoulder and elbow (S/E) training. FNS-ML had 1.5 h per session devoted to functional neuromuscular stimulation (surface electrodes) for wrist and hand (W/H) flexors/extensors. The primary outcome measure was the functional measure Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT). Secondary measures were AMAT-S/E and AMAT-W/H, Fugl-Meyer (FM) upper-limb coordination, and the motor control measures of target accuracy (TA) and smoothness of movement (SM). ROB-ML produced significant gains in AMAT, AMAT-S/E, FM upper-limb coordination, TA, and SM. FNS-ML produced significant gains in AMAT-W/H and FM upper-limb coordination.
Key words: activities of daily living, coordination, electrical stimulation, functional measure, functional neuromuscular stimulation, motor control, motor learning, rehabilitation, robotics, stroke.

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