Logo for the Journal of Rehab R and D

Volume 45 Number 7, 2008
   Pages 1007 — 1018

Abstract - Selection of optimal muscle set for 16-channel standing neuroprosthesis

Steven J. Gartman;* Musa L. Audu, PhD; Robert F. Kirsch, PhD; Ronald J. Triolo, PhD

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Orthopedics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; Motion Study Laboratory, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH

Abstract — The Case Western Reserve University/Department of Veterans Affairs 8-channel lower-limb neuroprosthesis can restore standing to selected individuals with paraplegia by application of functional electrical stimulation. The second generation of this system will include 16 channels of stimulation and a closed-loop control scheme to provide automatic postural corrections. This study used a musculoskeletal model of the legs and trunk to determine which muscles to target with the new system in order to maximize the range of postures that can be statically maintained, which should increase the system's ability to provide adequate support to maintain standing when the user's posture moves away from a neutral stance, either by an external disturbance or a volitional change in posture by the user. The results show that the prime muscle targets should be the medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, semimembranosus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, adductor magnus, and erector spinae. This set of 16 muscles supports 42% of the standing postures that are attainable by the nondisabled model. Coactivation of the lateral gastrocnemius and peroneus longus with the medial gastrocnemius and of the peroneus tertius with the tibialis anterior increased the percentage of feasible postures to 71%.

Key words: biomechanical modeling, functional electrical stimulation, lower limb, muscle selection, musculoskeletal model, neuroprosthesis, optimization, rehabilitation, spinal cord injury, standing balance.

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