Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development (JRRD)

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Respiratory muscle pacing with chronically implanted intramuscular Permaloc electrodes:
A feasibility study

James S. Walter, PhD, et al.


Superficial muscles of lateral upper-thorax area during autopsy. Poly-propylene anchors of two dissected Permaloc electrodes are shown at arrows. They are located at third and fourth intercostal spaces. Their location overlying serratus and latissimus muscles shows that the electrodes became dislodged from underlying intercostal muscles where they had been implanted. Electrodes were implanted for 40 days.

In patients with upper-cervical spinal cord injury, ventilation is maintained with a respirator or by phrenic nerve stimulation. Ventilation can also be augmented by upper- thorax stimulation during inhalation and abdominal-muscle stimulation during exhalation. In the current investigation, we report results with chronically implanted intramuscular electrodes located in the diaphragm, upper thorax, and abdominal muscles. Combined diaphragmatic and upper-thorax stimulation followed by abdominal-muscle stimulation increased the tidal volumes compared with diaphragmatic stimulation alone. Further studies must develop techniques that ensure stable anchoring of chronically implanted intramuscular electrodes and determine the best location and stimulation parameters to augment ventilation.

Volume 48 Number 2, 2011
   Pages 103 — 114


View HTML  ¦  View PDF  ¦  Contents Vol. 48, No. 2
This article and any supplementary material should be cited as follows:
Walter JS, Wurster RD, Zhu Q, Laghi F. Respiratory muscle pacing with chronically implanted intramuscular Permaloc electrodes: A feasibility study. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011;48(2):103-14. DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2010.05.0086

Last Reviewed or Updated  Thursday, February 10, 2011 12:52 PM

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