In patients with upper-cervical spinal cord injury, ventilation is maintained with a respirator or by phrenic nerve stimulation. Ventilation can also be augmented by upper- thorax stimulation during inhalation and abdominal-muscle stimulation during exhalation. In the current investigation, we report results with chronically implanted intramuscular electrodes located in the diaphragm, upper thorax, and abdominal muscles. Combined diaphragmatic and upper-thorax stimulation followed by abdominal-muscle stimulation increased the tidal volumes compared with diaphragmatic stimulation alone. Further studies must develop techniques that ensure stable anchoring of chronically implanted intramuscular electrodes and determine the best location and stimulation parameters to augment ventilation.
Volume 48 Number 2, 2011
Pages 103 — 114
Last Reviewed or Updated Thursday, February 10, 2011 12:52 PM