Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development (JRRD)

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Subjective visual vertical perception and sense of smell in Parkinson disease

Ahmed Khattab, PhD, et al.

Figure 1. Computerized rod and frame test in use. (a) Computer screen shows rod surrounded by frame tilted clockwise +18deg. Subject viewed display through head-mounted video glasses and rotated rod using two large buttons. Other possible frame positions were either (b) tilted counterclockwise (-18deg from vertical) or (c) untilted.

Impaired sense of smell is present in most patients with Parkinson disease (PD) at an early stage. This article aims to explore the relationship between smell and perception of vertical in PD. Smell was tested by scratch cards with different odors. Subjective visual vertical was assessed by a computerized rod and frame (CRAF) test (similar to a computer game). Nondisabled controls were more likely to correctly identify odors than were patients with PD. There were minor differences between the two groups in their visual perception, but patients with PD and a lower cognitive score took more time to complete the subjective visual vertical test. More research is needed in using the CRAF test in rehabilitation.

Volume 49 Number 6, 2012
   Pages 961 — 970


View HTML  ¦  View PDF  ¦  Contents Vol. 49, No. 6
This article and any supplementary material should be cited as follows:
Khattab A, Docherty S, Bagust J, Willington R, Thomas P, Amar K. Subjective visual vertical perception and sense of smell in Parkinson disease. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49(6):961–70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2011.05.0090
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Last Reviewed or Updated  Thursday, August 16, 2012 11:21 AM

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