Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development (JRRD)

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Volume 52 Number 1, 2015
   Pages 85 — 96

Abstract — Respiratory responses to stimulation of abdominal and upper-thorax intercostal muscles using multiple Permaloc® electrodes

James S. Walter, PhD;1–2* Donald Thomas, MD;3–4 Scott Sayers, PhD;1–4 R. Anthony Perez-Tamayo, MD;3–4 Timothy Crish;5 Sanjay Singh, PhD1,6

1Research and Development Service, Edward Hines Jr., Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Hospital, Hines, IL; 2Department of Urology, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL; 3Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Edward Hines Jr., VA Hospital, Hines, IL; 4 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL; 5Product Development & Operations, Synapse Biomedical, Inc, Oberlin, OH; 6East-West University, Chicago, IL

Abstract — Stimulation of abdominal and upper-thoracic muscles was studied with the long-term goal of improved respiratory care for spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. A 12-channel stimulator and multiple surface and implanted Permaloc electrodes were evaluated in five anesthetized canines. Abdominal stimulation with 100 mA using four bilateral sets of surface electrodes placed on the midaxillary line at the 7th through 13th intercostal spaces and with a closed airway at a large lung volume produced an expiratory tracheal pressure of 109 +/– 29 cm H2O (n = 2, mean +/– standard error of the mean). Similar high pressures were induced with implanted electrodes at the same locations. Upper-thoracic stimulation with 40 mA and four sets of implanted electrodes ventral to the axilla induced inspiratory pressures of −12 +/– 2 cm H2O (n = 5). Combined extradiaphragmatic pacing with an open airway produced a tidal volume of 440 +/– 45 mL (n = 4). The robust respiratory volumes and pressures suggest applications in SCI respiratory care.

Key words:abdominal muscles, cough, electrical stimulation, functional electrical stimulation, rehabilitation, respiration, respiratory distress, respiratory paralysis, spinal cord injury, upper-thoracic muscles.


View HTML ¦ View PDF ¦ Contents Vol. 52, No.1

This article and any supplementary material should be cited as follows:
Walter JS, Thomas D, Sayers S, Perez-Tamayo RA, Crish T, Singh S. Respiratory responses to stimulation of abdominal and upper-thorax intercostal muscles using multiple Permaloc® electrodes. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2015; 52(1):85–96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2014.01.0018
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