Volume 53 Number 5, 2016
Pages 561 — 570
Abstract — Computer-assisted surgical (CAS) planning tools are available for craniofacial surgery but are usually based on computer-aided design (CAD) tools that lack the ability to detect the collision of virtual objects (i.e., fractured bone segments). We developed a CAS system featuring a sense of touch (haptic) that enables surgeons to physically interact with individual, patient-specific anatomy and immerse in a three-dimensional virtual environment. In this study, we evaluated initial user experience with our novel system compared to an existing CAD system. Ten surgery resident trainees received a brief verbal introduction to both the haptic and CAD systems. Users simulated mandibular fracture reduction in three clinical cases within a 15 min time limit for each system and completed a questionnaire to assess their subjective experience. We compared standard landmarks and linear and angular measurements between the simulated results and the actual surgical outcome and found that haptic simulation results were not significantly different from actual postoperative outcomes. In contrast, CAD results significantly differed from both the haptic simulation and actual postoperative results. In addition to enabling a more accurate fracture repair, the haptic system provided a better user experience than the CAD system in terms of intuitiveness and self-reported quality of repair.
Key words: 3-D user interfaces, bimanual haptics, computer-assisted surgical simulation, craniofacial surgery, craniofacial trauma, force feedback, mandible fracture, surgical simulation, virtual environments, visuohaptic.
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Last Reviewed or Updated Wednesday, November 2, 2016 9:54 AM